Meghalaya "the abode of clouds", became a full-fledged State on January 21, 1972. It is bounded on the north by Goalpara, Kamrup, Nagoan and Karbi Anglong districts of Assam State, and on the east by the Districts of Cachar and North Cachar Hills, also of the State of Assam. On the south and west is Bangladesh. Meghalaya lies between 20.1 ‘N and 26.5 latitude and 85.49 ‘E and 92.52 "E longitude.
The total area of the State is 22,429 square kilometer with a population of 29,66,889 (2011 census). The State is now divided into eleven administrative districts. They are (1) Jaintia Hills District created on February 22, 1972. (2) East Garo Hills District and (3) West Garo Hills District created on October 22, 1976. (4) East Khasi Hills District and (5) West Khasi Hills District created on October 28, 1976. (6) Ri Bhoi District created on June 4, 1992. (7) South Garo Hills District created on June 18, 1992. (8) North Garo Hills District created on July 27, 2012. (9) East Jaintia Hills District created on July 7, 2012. (10) South West Khasi Hills District created on August 3, 2012 and (11) South West Garo Hills District created on August 7, 2012. They are predominantly inhabited by the Khasis, the Jaintias and the Garos. These tribal communities are the descendents of very ancient people having distinctive traits and ethnic origins.
According to the 2011 Census, Meghalaya has a population of 29,66,889 of which 14,91,832 are males and 14,75,057 are females. The population density per square kilometer is 132.
The Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills which form the central and eastern part of Meghalaya is an imposing plateau with rolling grasslands, hills and river valleys. The southern face of the plateau is marked by deep gorges and abrupt slopes. Water falls rush down steep slopes and carve deep valleys through which swift flowing rivers descend to the plains. At the foot of these slopes, a narrow strip of plainland runs along the international border with Bangladesh.
The northern section of the plateau has an undulating topography with a series of hills rising to almost the same height, extending northwards to slope gradually, merging with the plains of Assam. The accordant summit of these hills vary from 170 m to 820 m. Nongpoh village lying half way on the Guwahati-Shillong road, stands on a flat top of 70 m high on this hill section.
The height of the central plateau of the Khasi hills hovers around 1500 m with the Shillong Peak (1965 m), the highest point in the plateau, overlooking Shillong Town.
The Garo Hills which form the western part of Meghalaya are lower in elevation. The greater part of Garo Hills range in height from 450 m to 600 m and drop steeply to the Brahmaputra valley on the north and to the plains of Bangladesh on the south. Nokrek Peak (1412 m) east of Tura Town, is the highest peak in Western Meghalaya.
A number of rivers, none of them navigable, rain this mountainous State. In the Garo Hills, the Manda, the Damring and the Janjiram flow towards the north while the Ringge and the Ganol flow in the westerly direction. Those that flow to the south are the Simsang, which is the biggest river in Garo Hills and the Bhogai.
In the Khasi and Jaintia hills, the rivers that flow in a northerly direction include the Khri, the Umtrew, the Umiam, the Umkhem besides the Kupli on the border between Jainita Hills and North Cachar Hills. The Kynshi, the Umiam Mawphlang and the Umngot flow to the south into Bangladesh.
The state of Meghalaya is directly influenced by the south west monsoon and the northeast winter winds. The four seasons of Meghalaya are: Spring - March and April, Summer (Monsoon) - May to September, Autumn - October and November and Winter - December to February.
During March and April, the atmosphere gradually warms up with the advent of Spring. From the middle of April the temperature starts rising to the maximum in the month of June and then decreases gradually. This period may be termed as the Summer (Monsoon) Season. The maximum temperature recorded is 34 Celsius at Tura and West Garo Hills District and 28 Celsius at Shillong.
October and November are the two months when the climate is cool and temperate. After November, the winter season sets and continues upto the end of February. During these months the temperature comes down to as low as 2 Celsius in the Khasi Hills.
Rainfall starts by the third week of May and continues right up to the end of September and sometimes well into middle of October. The maximum rainfall occurs over the southern slopes of the Khasi hills, i.e over Cherrapunjee and Mawsynram platform which receives the heaviest rainfall in the world. The average rainfall in the State is 12,000 mm.
Meghalaya’s capital, Shillong and also the district headquarters of East Khasi Hills District is situated at an altitude of 1,496 meters above sea level. The capital city has a bracing climate throughout the year. This city has been the seat of Government since the consolidation of the British administration in this part of India, over a century ago.
According to legends, Shillong derived its name from a deity named "Shyllong" whose dwelling is also known as Shyllong Peak from whose niece the Syiem clan of Khyrim, Mylliem, Maharam, Malaisohmat, Bhowal and Langrin sprang up.
The city is one of the few hill stations with motorable roads all round. Shillong has its own charm, different from other hill stations, and presents a natural scenic beauty with waterfalls, brooks, pine grooves and gardens. The place, the people, the flora and fauna and the climate all combine to make Shillong an ideal resort throughout the year. Shillong offers arrangements for tourists with good hotel accommodation, facilities for sports, fishing and hiking.
Shillong is connected by a good arterial road with the rest of the country through Assam. A good road connects Shillong with Sylhet in Bangladesh, it is also connected with other important towns of the State like Jowai and Tura. An airport at Umroi, about 30 kilometers from Shillong, connects Shillong by air with the rest of the country.
Shillong is also the headquarters of the North Eastern Council, the Eastern Air Command, the Assam Rifle, the Assam Regimental Centre and 101 Comm. Zone. Here, there is the North Eastern Hill University and the official residence of the Governor of Meghalaya.
The principal languages in Meghalaya are Khasi and Garo with English as the official language of the State. It was at the initiative of the Christian missionaries that the Khasi and Garo languages and literature have developed and emerged in the list of Modern India Languages. Now Khasi and Garo languages is taught as one of the subjects of study upto to the Post Graduate level.
The State has a unicameral legislature. The Legislative Assembly consists of 60 Members - 29 from Khasi Hills, 7 from Jaintia Hills and 24 from Garo Hills.
Meghalaya originally comprised of two Districts and three Sub-Divisions. In order to accelerate the pace of development and to bring the administration closer to the people, the State has been reorganized into eleven administrative Districts and four Sub-divisions. For an all round development of the rural areas, the whole State is covered by 39 Community Development Blocks. There are three Autonomous District Councils in the State, namely the Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council, Garo Hills Autonomous District Council and Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council. These councils discharge the functions and duties as assigned to them under the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India
The functions and duties in each Council are discharged through the Executive, Legislative and Judiciary Wings.
The Members of the Councils are elected by the adult suffrage for a term of five years.
Meghalaya is the homeland of three of India’s ancient hill communities, the Khasi, the Jaintias and the Garos. Dance, music and sports reflect their way of life. Festive sounds of merry making echo from hill to hill revealing the pulsating life of the tribal people. Mindful of their cultural heritage these simple folks are jovial and hospitable.
The people of Meghalaya are not of the same ethnic origin. The Khasis and Jaintias are believed to be remnants of the first Mongolian overflow into India. They established themselves in their present homeland in the remote past and, owing primarily to their geographical isolation, succeeded in maintaining their independence until the consolidation of the British administration in this part of India.
The Khasi language spoken by the Khasis and Jaintias is believed to be one of the very few surviving dialects of the Monkumer family of languages in India, today.
The Garo hills is the homeland of about ten lakhs of Garos who prefer to call themselves "Achik". Legend has is that the Garos originally inhabited a province of Tibet named Torua and left Tibet for some reason in the distant past under the leadership of the legendary Jappa-Jalimpa and Sukpa-Bongepa. They wandered in the Brahmaputra valley at the site of resent valley for centuries in search of a permanent home. In the process they survived the ordeals of wars and persecutions at the hand of the kings ruling the valley. They then branched out into a number of sub-tribes and the main body under the legendary leader, Along Noga, occupied Nokrek, the highest Peak in Garo Hills.
Linguistically, Garo is akin to Bodo or Kachari, which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family of languages. They mainly practise jhum cultivation. Like the Khasi and Jaintias they are a matrilineal society. Life in the hills is hard, but these sturdy people are fond of dances, songs, sports and festivals.
Nongkrem Dance (Pomblang Nongkrem) : - Pomblang Nongkrem popularly known as the Nongkrem Dance is one of the most important festivals of the Khasis. it is five day religious festival held annually at Smit about 11 Km from Shillong, the Headquarters of the Chief (Syiem) of Khyrim. This festival is celebrated as a thanksgiving to the God Almighty for the good harvest and to pray for peace and prosperity. The Syiem who is the Administrative Head of the Hima (Khasi State), Ka Syiem Sad (literally the Syiem priestess), who is the caretaker of all religious ceremonies of the Hima, the Myntri (Council of Ministers), the priest and the high priest and the people in general all join in this festival, which is a rhythmic form of prayer for the well being of all.
Shad Suk Mynsiem : - One of the most important festivals of the Khasis is ‘Ka Shad Suk Mynsiem’ (Dance of the joyful heart). It is a thanksgiving dance. Maidens dress in traditional fineries and menfolk in colourful costumes participate in the dance to the accompaniment of drums and the flute. It is held in Shillong in April every year. The festival last for 3 (three) days.
Beh Dienkhlam : - This is the most important festival of the Jaintias and is celebrated after the sowing is over. "Khlam" means ‘Plague or Pestilence’ and "Beh Dien" means to drive away with sticks. It is very popular and colourful festivals of the Jaintias where men only, young and old, take part in the dancing to the tune of drums and flute. Women do not take part in the dancing, but had an important role to play at home in offering sacrificial food to the spirits of the ancestors. They invoke their aid and intercession, so that life here below will be good and worthy for the next one above. Men go round the town and beat the roof of every house with bamboo poles calling upon the plague demon to leave the house. This is done early on the first day of the festival. The climax of the celebrations is the tussle, as seen in a tug of war, for a large undressed beam by two groups people opposed to each other. This festival is also an invocation to God, seeking His blessing for good harvest.
Wangala Dance : - This is the biggest of all festival of the Garos performed in collection with the Jhum cultivation. It is usually held in October and so sometimes synchronises with the Durga Puja, but each village sets its own time and so there are two or three weeks during which Wangala is celebrated in two or three villages. After harvest, the annual dance of joy and thanks giving commences. The occasion is initiated right in the field by a simple but impressive ceremony known as ‘Rugalal’, which is followed by the ceremony of incense known as ‘Sasat Soa’. This is performed inside the house of the Chief of the village. The Chief, amidst burning of incense, beating of drums and the chanting of the people, utter a few words of incantation and pour rice beer and sprinkles rice powder over a collection of field produce offered to the Gods. This is immediately followed by drinking, dancing and merry making. People, young and old, boys and girls, in their colourful costumes with feathered headgears, dance to the tunes of music played on long oval shaped drums.
The main markets in the State are the Iewduh, the Iew Sohra, the Iew Musiang, the Iew Langstieh, the Iew Nongstoin in the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, the Tura Market, the Phulbari market, the Garobadha market, the Williamangar market, the Rongjeng market and the Mendipathar market in the Garo Hills.
Iewduh is the biggest market in the State in the heart of Shillong Town. In this market most of the shopkeepers are women. All kinds articles, food items, clothing, hardware, electrical goods, medicines, agriculture implements, handicrafts, audio-visual equipments, etc. are available.
Meghalaya is basically an Agriculture State with about 81% of its total population depending entirely on Agriculture for their livelihood. The hilly terrain and land conditions of the State do not offer much scope in bringing additional area under wet condition, but the state has a vast potential for developing Horticulture. The agroclimatic variations within the State offers much scope for cultivation of Temperature as well as tropical fruits and vegetables.
Besides the major food crops of Rice and Maize, the State is also renowned for its Horticulture crops like Orange, Lemon, Pineapple, Guava, litchi, Banana, Jack Fruits and Temperate fruits such as Plum, Pear, Peach etc. Potato, Ginger, Turmeric, Black Pepper, Arecanut, Tezpata, Betelvine, short -staple cotton, Jute, Mesta, Mustard and Rapeseed etc. are some of the important cash crops in the State.
Apart from the above, the State have achieved signal success in the cultivation of non-traditional crops like Tea, Cashewnut, Oilseeds, Tomato, mushroom, Wheat, etc. are some of the important cash crops in the State.
In order to provide assured irrigation to farmers and thereby ensuring increase food production, a number of Minor irrigation facilities has been envisaged, out of 2.18 lakh hectares estimated irrigation potential both from surface and ground water. Today the State have been able to provide all assured irrigation facilities to an area of 35,500 Hectares.
Important Food Crops in Meghalaya
1. Foodgrain 2. Potato. 3. Cotton. 4. Pineapple. 5. Orange and Lemon Livestock and Diary Farming have tremendous potential for generating self employment avenues to the people including educated unemployed youths of the State. The other programme is to assist the people in raising fodder and pasture to graze their cattle and other livestock.
The total forest area in the State is 8,510 Sq. Km with only 993 Sq.Kms under the control of the State Government and the rest under the District councils and private managements. The principal timber species are Sal, Teak, Titachap, Gomari, Bol, Pine Birch and Makri-Sal.
The principal forest products include timber, bamboo, reed, broomstick, cane, ipecac, medicinal herbs and plants, cinnamon and thatch grass. Azaleas and rhododendrons grow wild in the forests of Khasi Hills and Jaintia hills and many kinds of beautiful orchids are found in the woods.
Pitcher Plants, the insect -eating plants of botanical wonder is found in plenty in the Jaintia Hills, West Khasi Hills and South Garo Hills District of Meghalaya and it is said that such a plant is found no where else in the world. Many rare and interesting plants are also found endemic to the State like Wild Citrus and Pygmy Lily.
Meghalaya is also rich in wildlife. There are elephants, tigers, bears, wild-boars, leopards, golden cats, leopard cats and jungle cats, deer of various kind, binturongs, slow loris monkeys of different types including capped-langurs, golden langurs and hoolock, flying squirrels and giant squirrels. There are also many rare and interesting birds including the hornbills, patridges, pheasants, teals, snipes geese, ducks and quils. All these are protected by law. The State has two National Parks, Viz, Nokrek and Balpakram and two Wildlife Sanctuaries, Viz, Nongkhyllem and Siju.
The most important trade in non-agricultural produce is cement from Mawmluh Cherra Cement Company at Sohra. Two mini cement plants have also been set up at Damas in East Garo Hills and at Sutnga in Jaintia hills which have started production, in the private sector, two more mini cement plants are being considered for implementation in East Khasi Hills.
The number of small scale industrial units covering service industry, bakeries, furniture making, iron and steel fabrication, type retreading etc., are increasing and the Government is giving great thrust on entrepreneurship motivation and development.
The Meghalaya Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) is also assisting private entrepreneurs to set up industries in small and tiny sectors by way of financing and also equity participation.
The Meghalaya Electronics development corporation has set up the Tantalum Capacitor Project At Umiam Khwan. The Unit has since started production. There are about 2000 registered small scale industrial units, with the number gradually rising, providing employment opportunities specially to the educated unemployed youths in the State.
Although the foundation of modern education in the State was laid by the Christian Missionaries in the 19th century, in accordance with the democratic tradition of the people, the community plays a significant role in setting up and maintenance of schools, This is evident from the fact that, most of Primary, Upper Primary, Secondary Schools and Colleges are under private management, The State Government plays a promotional role in supplementing the efforts of the Community by extending liberal maintenance grant to recognized schools either under deficit or adhoc grant -in- aid system
To keep pace with the national pattern of education, the Government has introduced 10+2+3 pattern in a phased manner.
There are 4099 Primary schools, according to the VI All India Education Survey covering about 88% of the rural population, just within walking distance. Upper Primary education has reached 70% of the rural areas and there are 410 Secondary Schools and 42 Colleges in the State. All the Colleges are affiliated to the central university (North Eastern Hill University).
A State Council for Technical Education have been given special thrust for elimination of illiteracy from the State with the implementation of the total Literacy campaign. The literary rate in the State according to the 2001 census is 63.31 %.
Like education, the foundation for health care centres was laid by the Christian Missionaries as far back as the 19th century. Yet the health services coverage in the State is much below the national average owing to the hilly terrain with its inadequate road network. To reduce infant and maternal mortality, a number of Family Welfare Programmes have been taken up under Central Government Sponsorship. There are at present 10 Government Hospitals, 12 Community Health Centres, 88 Primary Health Centres and 413 Sub-Centres in the State. The number of beds in the Government Hospitals including Community Health Centres and Primary Centres is 2377.
The State produce Coal, Limestone, Siliminite, Fire-Clay, White Clay, Kaolin, Dolomite, Feldspar, Quartz and Glass sand. The State has deposit of Coal (estimated reserves - 562 million tonnes), Limestone (4500 million tonnes), Fire Clay (million tonnes), which are virtually untapped so far. Seepages of crude oil associated with bubbles of natural gas, have been reported in the southern slopes of Meghalaya and the ONGC is prospecting these areas from time to time.
Hydro - Power
Power plays a vital and significant role in growth and development. The State power potentiality for nearly 1200 M.W. It is a power surplus State. About 50 % of electricity generated in the State is supplied to the neighbouring State.
Meghalaya is doted with a number of lovely tourist spots where nature unveils herself in all her glory.
Shillong, the capital city of the State, has a number of beautiful spots. They are the Ward’s Lake, the Lady Hydari Park, the expansive Polo Ground, the Elephant Falls, the Shillong Peak over looking the city and the green Golf course, one of the highest 18-hole link golf course in the Country.
Places of Interest
Umiam (Barapani), it lies 17 Km away from Shillong and has been developed into a popular tourist Centre in the State. The introduction of watersports with facilities like sailing, water-skiing, water scooter etc., and opening of the Orchid Lake Resort has greatly enhanced the already breathtaking favourite haunt.
Shillong Peak, an ideal picnic spot rises 1960 metres above the sea level and is 10 Kms from the city. Standing on the peak one can see on a clear day, the Himalayan peaks as well as the plains of Bangladesh. In the evening the city lights below is like a planetarium in reverse position.
Sohra, 56 Kms from Shillong is noted for its heavy rainfall. It is 1,300 metres above sea-level. Sohra is set amid deep gorges and roaring waterfalls. No other place in India can offer such a variety-the monumental Nohsngithiang Falls (Mawsmai Falls), the epic Dain-thlen Falls and the romantic Nohkalikai Falls and the smaller ones streaking down every slope. Close by are a network of limestone caves between Sohra and Mawsmai, the ends of which have not yet been explored. Sohra also has some significance for being the first British outpost in this part of the country. It also has the oldest Presbyterian Church in the North East. The Ramakrishna Mission also has lager establishment in this land for Khasi culture and literature. Its surrounding are also famous for its orange orchards and honey.
Mawsynram, 55Km from Shillong is situated on the South West of Shillong by the side of Shillong-Mawphlang-Balat road. It closely rivals Sohra in annual rainfall. Its major attraction is a picturesque cave featuring a giant stalagmite in the shape of a natural Shivalinga, which is bathed the year round by water dropping form an overhanging stalactite shaped like a cow’s udder. This famous cavern is locally known a ‘Krem Mawjymbuin’ - a place of pilgrimage for Hindus and a natural wonder for sightseers.
Jakrem, 64 Km from Shillong. A popular health resort with hot spring of sulphur water which is believed to have medicinal properties.
Ranikor, 140 Km from Shillong. It is also a place of scenic beauty. Ranikor is one of Meghalaya’s most popular spots for angling, with an abundance of carp and other fresh water fish. Huge golden mahseers, the pride of the anglers are available here.
Dawki, 96 Km from Shillong . It is an excellent picnic spot with silver streams and deep waters with magnificent views of the Khasi Hills on one side and Bangladesh on the other
Mairang, 45 Km from Shillong. This area is famous for U Tirot Singh, Syiem of Nongkhlaw, who fought against the British ruler to retain independence of the Khasi People. Visitors can also proceed to the spot of ‘Kyllang Rock’ about 16 Kms from Mairang. Climbing this rock is a package attraction for adventurous persons.
Thadlaskein Lake, 56 Km from Shillong. According to legend this lake was dug using the head of bows by the followers fo Sajar Nangli, a Laskar of a Jaintia King who had revolted against his ruler. It is a historical lake and a beautiful spot for outing, boating and picnic.
Nartiang, 65 Km from Shillong and 24 Km from Jowai was once the headquarters of the Jaintia Kings. The village is famous for a cluster of monoliths is said to have been the walking stick of mar Phalyngki, the Galiath of Jaintia legend.
Syndai, is an important village of Jaintia Hills famous for a number of caverns in the limestone-borne area. Till date eleven caves have been discovered near Syndai. This cave had once served as a secure haven of Jaintia Rajas where they used to keep their families during war times.
Nokrek, Being the highest peak in Garo Hils it is 1,412 metres high. It can be reached from Tura by jeep upto Daribokgre village and them about 3 Kilometres trekking to the Peak. Citrus fruits grow abundantly here. The Government has taken over 47 Sq. Km of Nokrek Peak in 1985 and declared it as the National Gene Citrus Sanctuary and Biosphere Reserve. Nokrek Peak is the source of most of the important rivers of Garo Hills including Simsang River.
Balpakram, is a high plateau in South Garo Hills District overlooking Bangladesh. There is a great precipice or deep gorge in Balpakram and is popularly compared to the Grand Canyon of U.S.A. The literal meaning of Balpakram is the "land of perpetual wind". This place is closely connected with the age-old belief of the Garos as the land of the disembodied spirits. This area has been declared a National Park on 27th December, 1998. A variety of medicinal herbs locally called "dikges" grow abundantly in Balpakram.
Siju Cave, popularly known as Dabakkol, is situated at Siju village on the bank of the Simsang river in South Garo Hills District. A small stream flows out of this cave. To enter this cave one should carry petromax lantern or a number of torches.
Tura Peak, is 5 Km above Tura town and is situated on the eastern side of Tura. It is 872 metres high from the sea-level. There is a Tourist Bungalow and Observatory Post in the peak. A nice cinchona garden also is situated near the Tura Peak. When the weather is clear at the peak one can have a panoramic view of Tura town and the south-western part of the district. The Government has declared the entire Tura Peak as water catchment area and Reserved Forest in 1982.
Baghmara, is growing headquarter of the former Baghmara Civil Sub-Division, now the South Garo Hills district. It is situated on the bank of Simsang river and is famous for its tasty fishes. The rare carnivorous pitchers plant locally called "Memang Koksi" grow abundantly in the around Baghmara town.
Williamnagar, is the beautiful headquarter of East Garo Hills district situated on the bank of Simsang river. This little township was named after Capt. Williamson A. Sangma, the first Chief Minister of Meghalaya.
Angling is the most popular sport of the people of the State. The important rivers for angling are the Kynshi, the Umtrew, the Umngot and Simsang where the huge golden Mahseers are available. Archery is also another popular sport.
Transport and Communication
Being a hilly State, still backward in trade, commerce and industry, with 4/5 th of its population living in the rural areas, the necessity of proper road network is of utmost importance in Meghalaya. The State is not served by railways and river transportation is not feasible. Hence roads are the only means of bulk transportation here. The road density is about 25 per 100 sq.kms well below the national average of 54.
Roads: Three National Highways pass through the State of Meghalaya for a distance of 461 Kilometers.
Aviation: Shillong airport is the only airport is the State, linking it with the other neighbouring states and the rest of the country.
Radio and Television
Meghalaya is served by a 100 KW Medium Wave Radio Transmitter located at Shillong, East Khasi Hills District and 10 KW Transmitter located Tura, West Garo Hills District. A short Wave ‘North Eastern Services’ is also functioning at Shillong.
As regard television coverage, 1 KW TV Centre has been set up at Shillong a 10 KW transmitter has been installed at Tura, an LPT relay transmitter has been installed at Jowai and a VLPT relay transmitters been setup at Nongstoin and Williamnagar.
Some Basic Data
(a) The Land
|1. Area||22,429 Sq. Km.|
|2. Districts and its Headquarters||Districts||Headquarters|
|East Khasi Hills||Shillong|
|West Khasi Hills||Nongstoin|
|South West Khasi Hills||Mawkyrwat|
|East Jaintia Hills||Khliehriat|
|West Jaintia Hills||Jowai|
|East Garo Hills||Williamnagar|
|West Garo Hills||Tura|
|South Garo Hills||Baghmara|
|North Garo Hills||Resubelpara|
|South West Garo Hills||Ampati|
(b) The People (Census 2011)
|1. Total Population||29,66,889|
|2. Density||132 Per Sq. Km.|
|4. Racial Origin of the People||Austric, Tibeto-Burman|
(c) Major Mineral Resources
Coal, Limestone, Sillimanite, Dolomite, Fireclay, Felspar, Quartz and Glass-sand.
(d) Principal Forest Produce
Timber, Bamboo, Reed, Cane, Ipecac, Medicinal herbs and Plants, Cinnamon, Lemon-grass and Thatch-grass.
(e) Principal Agricultural Products
Rice, Maize, Potato, Cotton, Orange, Ginger, Tezpata, Arecanut, Jute, Mesta, Banana and Pineapple.
Animals: Elephant, Tiger, Leopard, Bear, Panther, Wild Boar, etc.
Birds: Duck, Hornbill, Myna etc.